|State Motto: Not just another state|
|Capital and Largest City||Capital City|
|Senator||Rich Texan (R)|
|Representative||Herschel Pinkus Yerucham Krustofsky (R)|
|Elevation||- Highest Point: 6144 m|
- Lowest Point: N/A (unsourced)
|Main Industry||Brewing, Manufacturing, Agriculture, Petrochemicals, Nuclear Power|
|Abbreviations - USPS||NT, TA, TK, IL, USA|
|State Bird||Potbellied sparrow|
|State Pasta||Bow Tie|
"The location of Springfield is in any state but yours."- One of Bart's chalkboard gags.
Springfield's State is a fictional U.S state where Springfield is located in The Simpsons. The state was founded by circus freaks and was assumed to be the location of New Sodom, due to misinterpreting a passage in the Bible. Settlers from Maryland were heading for New Sodom. Instead, however, they founded Springfield, built upon its Puritan values, and Shelbyville, built on marriage between cousins.
The state has many counties. Springfield County is where the city of Springfield is located. There is also Swartzwelder County which borders Springfield and the rural Spittle County, which claims to be the birthplace of the "loogie". Other cities in the state include: Cypress Creek, founded by the Globex Corporation; Ogdenville, the Norwegian settlement famous for the Springfield Monorail; Little Pwagmattasquarmsettport, known as America's scrod basket; and Capital City, the largest city and the state capital. Catfish Lake is known for its fishing and marriage retreats. There is also the unpopular community of Stenchburg as well as towns such as Terror Lake, Cape Fear, New Horrorfield, Screamville, Frigid Falls, Mount Seldom, and Lake Flaccid.
The state is made up of mainly agricultural land, with occasional large cities such as Capital City and medium-sized towns such as Springfield and Shelbyville. The farms mainly grow corn, livestock, dairy, fruit, cotton, tobacco, and tomacco, while within the cities, the main industries are brewing by the Duff and Fudd Beer corporations, coal mining, casinos, manufacture of boxes, pillows, food, copper, iron, steel, industrial equipment, dangerous chemicals and retail. This balance means that most of the population works in low paid, blue collar jobs.
Despite this, several wealthy citizens exist, most famously business tycoons like Charles Montgomery Burns (a utilities magnate who runs the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant), and Aristotle Amadopolis (also a utilities magnate, who owns the nuclear ower plant in Shelbyville), and evil corporate barons like Hank Scorpio (a crime lord who seized the Eastern Seaboard), The Rich Texan (an oil industrialist) and, until his imprisonment, Artie Ziff (a software entrepreneur involved in a stockholders' scandal).
The state includes both areas of high wealth (Old Springfield, the center of Capital City), and slum areas (Capital City outskirts, New Springfield). Because of this, the state becomes very polarized, with constant feuds between upper and lower class citizens over issues as petty as telephone area codes.
The state pays Springwood Minimum Security Prison prisoners 5 cents an hour for manual labor.
The state is heavily polluted due to years of environmental neglect by the government and the local nuclear plants. Toxic waste is to be found in most bodies of water as well as the occasional mutated three-eyed fish. Despite this, the state has a wide array of wildlife, including grizzly bears, bald eagles, and manatees.
The state has a variety of geographical features, such as gorges, forests, mountains, rivers, beaches, deserts, lakes, wetlands and a glacier.
Springfield is in a northern state that fought with the Union during the Civil War.
Springfield is located in a state that borders an ocean when it is convenient to have such.
The state which houses Springfield is shown briefly on a map , though not officially cannon, it is the only known instance so far in the series where the state's shape and it's geographical location is shown properly on a US map. Here, the state itself is shown to be landlocked within Nebraska, Colorado, and Kansas with Springfield towards the center of the state as represented by an icon of Blinky.
Mary Bailey is the current Governor of Springfield's State. The Unnamed Governor was once governor from 1998-2002 and possibly 1994-2002. Mr. Burns had also ran for Governor on one occasion, but was defeated by Bailey. A former Governor was Chester L. Suicide, who has a bridge named in his honor.
The only mayor shown of any town or city in the state is Springfield's own "Diamond" Joe Quimby, a long-serving Democrat. The only other mayors to serve the town during the series was Robert Terwilliger (aka "Sideshow Bob"), who ran as a Republican and Hans Moleman, who purchased the town anthem from a salesmen selling the same anthem to half of the cites in North America in "Walking Big & Tall".
In "Mr. Spritz Goes to Washington", Krusty wins the state's 24th congressional district. The only states with at least 24 districts are New York, Florida, Texas and California.
The state follows a standard education system, with elementary schools, junior high schools and high schools. However, the state has a very low education budget; schools can only afford to buy books other schools have banned, they are forced to cancel all artistic and physical education, and must rent out classrooms as prison cells to make ends meet. The most extreme example of this is Springfield Elementary School, which was moved from Missouri brick by brick after reaching bottom of the state league table. The state is also home to Springfield University, Springfield A&M (which was founded by a cow), and the unfortunately-initialed Springfield Heights Institute of Technology.
The state has a comprehensive Interstate Highway system, linking to Oregon, Michigan, New Jersey, Texas and "some other state." Interstate 95 was depicted in one of the episodes. The area also has a good rail network, with both passenger and freight services. The area's several international airports also provide a strong transport link with destinations in the state, other US states, and the world.
What state is Springfield in?
The uncertain location of Springfield is a running gag in the series, based on the fact that 34 states in the United States have at least one community with that name; and several have more than one. Episodes frequently make fun of the fact that Springfield's state has never been revealed, by adding further conflicting descriptions, obscuring onscreen map representations, and interrupting conversational references.
Many descriptions do not apply for any real state. A good example of this is in The Simpsons Movie, where Ned Flanders says that the four states that have borders with Springfield are Ohio, Nevada, Maine, and Kentucky, but no American state with these characteristics exists, and only Ohio and Kentucky share a common border. Because of this, it is possible that Springfield is located in a fictional state with an exact location in the United States varying from episode to episode.
Geography of Springfield and its location
There are many geographical features of Springfield that means many parts of the USA could not hold the city.
It is known that the city of Springfield borders the ocean, meaning landlocked states could not house Springfield. This means that Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, West Virginia and Wyoming are all not possible. Although not landlocked, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin only border lakes, and therefore, are also not possible. Springfield has also been made clear to be in a state and not a district, so the District of Columbia is not possible.
The couch gag for "The Ziff Who Came to Dinner", "On a Clear Day I Can't See My Sister" and "Eternal Moonshine of the Simpson Mind" feature the camera zooming out from the Simpson home to outside the universe (ala Power of 10). It apparently puts Springfield near the Great Lakes.
Jokes in the series also suggest that Springfield is exceedingly large. Examples include Ned Flanders' claim that Springfield borders states quite far apart (Ohio, Nevada, Maine and Kentucky) and the fact that Springfield's western region called West Springfield is three times the size of Texas, making this region alone roughly the size of Mexico or Saudi Arabia. Strangely enough the map that depicts West Springfield shows that the area is "Texas shaped" and even spills over the US/Mexico boarder, although this is probably to show the true size of West Springfield and not it's geographical location.
Though we actually do see what the state could look like in Mother and Child Reunion, it should be noted that this shouldn't be taken seriously as it's not canon. But it is also the only instance in the series where we actually see the state's geographical location on an actual map. It shows it landlocked and quite medium sized. But it doesn't account for an ocean, not bordering Ohio, Nevada, Maine or Kentucky, not at least 3x the size of Texas, or isn't on a border to make the Five Corners possible.
Local dialects and accents
There are many local ways of speaking that could be used to locate Springfield within the United States. However, the residents of Springfield have a huge range of accents, some of which clearly originate even outside the country (such as Groundskeeper Willie's Scottish accent). Most Springfield children and many adults speak with a regionally-nonspecific general American accent (for example, Homer Simpson), as mostly heard throughout the Northern or Western United States.
A considerable number of the middle-aged generation of Springfield citizens, though, have an accent of the greater New York metropolitan area. Marge Simpson and Barney Gumble both exhibit rhotic, New York metropolitan accents (as spoken, for example, in Long Island or North Jersey), while Carl Carlson and Lenny Leonard, as well as Moe Szyslak (who is not a Springfield native, but who moved there as a young child), all have authentically non-rhotic New York City accents (as spoken, for example, in Brooklyn).
Ned Flanders shows elements of a Southern accent (perhaps, bolstered by his identification with Southern Baptism or Evangelism) and the local Spuckler family especially has strong, rural Southern accents.
Mayor Joe Quimby has a cultivated Eastern New England accent, as in an exaggerated imitation of Ted or John F. Kennedy.
One possibility to explain Springfield's diversity of accents is that different socioeconomic groups in the town have different accents, or that the town is a linguistic melting pot, perhaps because it is located midway between a variety of dialectal regions. Ned Flanders' comment that Springfield borders Ohio, Nevada, Maine, and Kentucky, though geographically impossible, would lend credit to this theory.
Where Springfield Might Be
In "Burns, Baby Burns", Mr. Burns' long-lost son, Larry Burns, recognizes his father on a train but is unable to board it before it moves away. He asks an attendant standing on the final carriage where it is going and is told "Springfield". Larry knows but asks what state. The guard's reply is almost inaudible, but ends in the syllable "-aska". This suggests that Springfield could be in Nebraska or Alaska.
In "Half-Decent Proposal", Lisa states that West Springfield is three times the size of Texas. Alaska is the only state larger than Texas, suggesting that it could be Alaska.
However, in "Fear of Flying", when offered free air travel to any US State, the Simpsons are told "except Alaska and Hawaii. The freak states." It could also be possible that Springfield is located in a fictional state that's name ends with the syllable "-aska".
In "Catch 'Em if You Can", Homer is about to take a flight with Marge for a family birthday party and complains about the airline of a previous trip. He exclaims, "What kind of an airline routes all their flights through Nome, Alaska?". If they lived in Alaska, this is not so bad, but if they don't live in Alaska, it is quite a long trip.
In The Simpsons Movie, the Simpsons move to Alaska, which means that they don't live there.
When presenting his proposal for the Springfield Monorail, Lyle Lanley pulls-out a map of American towns to which he sold Monorails too. One such town is Ogdenville which, according to the map, was located approximately in Arizona, and Springfield and Ogdenville are apparently within walking distance of one-another. Lanley, however, is notorious for extreme fraudulence, so the accuracy of the map is highly questionable.
In "The City of New York vs. Homer Simpson", when he arrives in New York, Homer tells the rest of the family, "Now remember, criminals prey on small-town folk like us, so if anyone asks we're sophisticated millionaires from the Ozarks." The real Springfield, Arkansas is located in the Ozark Foothills.
There is also a radio station named KBBL in Springfield. There was also a KBBL TV Station in Eureka Springs, Arkansas (now called KXNW)
Springfield A&M's mascot is a pig named Sir Oinks-A-Lot, which may be a nod to the University of Arkansas' mascot the Razorbacks, a wild boar.
In "Principal Charming" and "Selma's Choice", Hans Moleman's driver's license shows a ZIP code of 90701. That is, in fact, the ZIP code for Artesia, California. However, this could simply be an out of date license.
In "Ice Cream of Margie (with the Light Blue Hair)", Snake commandeers a helicopter after a high-speed police chase, then flies next to Kent Brockman's news chopper. When Brockman asks him about the traffic below, Snake mentions a pileup on the "101/405 interchange", which is a real highway crossroads located in Sherman Oaks, California. This possibly hints that Springfield may be in the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area.
In "Lisa the Tree Hugger", Lisa protects a redwood tree by climbing into the canopy and camping up there, much like Julia Butterfly Hill did in real life. Redwood trees only exist in California, suggesting Springfield to be in Northern California.
During the couch gag for "Wedding for Disaster", the sales tax on Comic Book Guy's bill works out to be 8.25%, the default sales tax rate in California. The sales tax rate in Austin, Texas is also 8.25%.
Springfield, California is an unincorporated community and Springfield has a municipal government.
In "Itchy & Scratchy Land", the Simpson family briefly has to stop at a Fruits and Vegetables checkpoint, causing Homer to panic (as he was apparently smuggling fruits and vegetables as a side job). Fruits and Vegetables checkpoints are very common in California.
In "C.E. D'oh", Smithers mentions that Mr. Burns is going to face trouble as the U.S. Government discovered evidence that Mr. Burns dumped nuclear waste into LEGOLAND. The only Legolands that exist in the United States are in California, and Massachusetts. Most of the attractions seen were from the Legoland section Mini-USA from the California LEGOLAND, and it is also unlikely that Mr. Burns would travel a long distance just to dump nuclear waste.
According to "The Seven-Beer Snitch", there is a gas chamber in the Springfield Penitentiary. Only five states have a gas chamber as an option for capital punishment in their prisons: California, Arizona, Wyoming, Missouri, and Maryland. This coupled with the fact that Springfield is located on an ocean and the sun sets on it seems to leave California as the only possibility.
Also, in the Simpsons Jumbo Rain-Or-Shine Fun Book, there is a fill-in-the-blank story in which Lisa says, "There's a car with ____ strapped to its roof!" to which Marge responds to by saying, "They must be from California."
There is a Waverly Hills in Springfield, which is a parody of Beverly Hills, California.
In "Special Edna", when Skinner drives Willie's car two thousand six hundred and fifty three miles from Springfield to Orlando. If he uses conventional roads, it could put him in either California, Oregon or Idaho.
In "The Canine Mutiny", it is implied that medicinal marijuana is legal. At the time (the episode first aired in 1997), only California had legalized marijuana for medical use.
The Springfield Town Square is based on the plaza in Arcata, California.
According to "Lisa the Drama Queen", the Simpson family once accidentally wound up at the Yosemite National Park after getting lost on the way to brunch. Yosemite is located in California.
In "Grampy Can Ya Hear Me", when Miss Hoover begins to pass back her students' astronomy papers, on the chalkboard reads, "Five States Whose Capitals Start with the Same Letter as the State: Delaware, Hawaii, Indiana, Oklahoma, This State". Since Capital City is the capital of Springfield's state, this could mean that Springfield is in California or Colorado.
In "Grampy Can Ya Hear Me", when Miss Hoover begins to pass back her students' astronomy papers, on the chalkboard reads, "Five States Whose Capitals Start with the Same Letter as the State: Delaware, Hawaii, Indiana, Oklahoma, This State". Since Capital City is the capital of Springfield's state, this could mean that Springfield is in Colorado.
Colorado, however, is entirely above 3280 feet (1000 meters), making this state an impossibility if Springfield itself is 1,582 feet (482 meters) above-sea-level, and is known to border an ocean.
In "Mother and Child Reunion," when the Lisa Simpson Academy expands, there is a map that shows a state that includes parts of northeastern Colorado, south-central Nebraska, and northwestern Kansas. However, this is non-canon.
In "Revenge is a Dish Best Served Three Times", the Rich Texan on whom Homer wishes to seek revenge tells Bart that he and Homer have buried the hatchet because the two are both from Connecticut. (despite his name) It has previously been revealed that Homer was born in Springfield.
In "Treehouse of Horror XIII", during "Send in the Clones", when it is shown that the Homer clones will have spread across the entire United States, one of the faces in the first frame appears over Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island.
In "Grampy Can Ya Hear Me", when Miss Hoover begins to pass back her students' astronomy papers, on the chalkboard reads, "Five States Whose Capitals Start with the Same Letter as the State: Delaware, Hawaii, Indiana, Oklahoma, This State". Since Capital City is the capital of Springfield's state, this could mean that Springfield is in Connecticut.
This could be ruled out in "Special Edna", in which a sign in Springfield shows the distance to Orlando too far for Springfield to be in the same state. And even then, it would, again, have to be a large one. There is also further evidence to disprove this point in "Kill the Alligator and Run", in which the family goes on a vacation to Florida (which Homer refers to as "America's Wang") and are prohibited from returning. After the Simpsons are expelled from Florida, Marge and Homer mark that state on a map, which shows only two states remaining that still welcome the Simpsons: Arizona and North Dakota, but Homer crosses out Arizona because "it smells funny" and it is mockingly announced that the Simpsons are going to North Dakota, but logically, the only remaining state on a map would have to be the state in which the Simpsons reside.
Also, Florida is a Southern state, meaning the aforementioned comment in "Bart vs. Lisa vs. the Third Grade" would not make sense.
However, it frequently snows in Springfield, which overwhelmingly rules out the state as being the Simpsons' home, since snow in Florida is rare and only falls a few times per generation in most parts.
Also, there are many tall mountains in Springfield (i.e. the Murderhorn), while Florida is a mostly flat state with no mountains at all.
In "Blood Feud", Homer's thank you letter from Mr. Burns has a return address of "1000 Mammon Ln, Springfield" with scribbles following which could be construed as "IL, 22617".
In the couch gag for "The Ziff Who Came to Dinner", "Simple Simpson", "Bart-Mangled Banner", "On a Clear Day I Can't See My Sister" and "Eternal Moonshine of the Simpson Mind", when the camera begins to zoom out of the universe, it zooms out of Illinois, and there is a real city named Springfield in Illinois. There is also a real city named Shelbyville in Illinois, 63.6 miles away from Springfield, IL. However, it should be noted that this couch gag is a parody of the documentary short Powers of Ten, which also zooms out of Illinois, and also that couch gags are non-canon.
This page also suggests that they may be from Springfield, IL.
In "Bart vs. Lisa vs. the Third Grade", when the satellite signal is emitting, it is coming from Springfield, Illinois.
The town square found in the Simpsons' "Springfield" is very similar to that of one in Springfield, Illinois. At the center of the square, is a statue of Abraham Lincoln, much like that of Jebediah Springfield.
In "Radio Bart", according to Kent Brockman, an "Abraham Lincoln Squirrel" was found and murdered in Springfield. Illinois is considered Lincoln's home, and so this could widely encourage the Illinois theory.
In "Treehouse of Horror XIII", during "Send in the Clones", when it is shown that the Homer clones will spread through the entire United States, one of the faces in the first frame is in Illinois.
Springfield, Illinois is located on Lake Springfield.
There is also a Shelbyville in central Illinois, the same region of the state as Springfield.
There is an Evergreen Court Lane in Springfield, Illinois.
In The Simpsons Movie, Ned says that Ohio, Nevada, Maine and Kentucky all border Springfield. Illinois borders one of these states. Ned's joke is just a joke and not meant to be taken literally like most other hints.
Springfield has often been shown on a (presumed) ocean. Illinois does not border an ocean, but does in fact have a coastline on Lake Michigan, which could possibly appear similar to an ocean. Illinois was also part of the Union in the Civil War and is a northern state. Illinois also has a Major League Baseball team in Capital City, which appears similar to Chicago, which also has a MLB team in real life (although in real life, the capital of Illinois is Springfield). There is also a video on YouTube about the state being in Illinois.
This is also strongly suggested in "What Animated Women Want", when the camera rapidly zooms out of Springfield, showing that the city is probably near Chicago, definitely in Illinois.
In "Lisa the Iconoclast", when a few members of Springfield are digging up the grave of Jebediah Springfield (looking for a literal silver tongue), Groundskeeper Willie tosses a shovel-full of dirt onto the eternal flame of Adlai Stevenson. Adlai Stevenson (likely referring to Adlai Stevenson II) was a former Democratic governor of Illinois and ran for president in 1952 and 1956.
Ned Flanders has stated that Springfield is bordered by the states of Ohio, Nevada, Maine and Kentucky. Although no such state exists in the real word, Indiana is the only state to border more than one of these, sharing land borders with Ohio and Kentucky. Additionally, it is said that Springfield's state became the first flyover state in 1906, when the Wright Brothers flew directly from Ohio to Kentucky, skipping Springfield entirely.
Despite the fact that Indiana does not have an oceanic coastline, which Springfield is shown to have, it does border at least one large body of water, Lake Michigan, which could appear similar to an ocean.
In "Behind the Laughter", the narrator describes the Simpsons as a "northern Kentucky family". (the DVD print says "Northern Kentucky" whilst at the same time the subtitles say "Southern Missouri") There are, in fact, Springfields and Shelbyvilles in both Kentucky and Missouri. In the Bluegrass region of Kentucky, there is a Springfield, a Shelbyville, and even a Simpsonville within fifty air miles of each other, and Shelbyville and Simpsonville are even in the same county. However, that episode featured the Simpson family as actors "playing" roles of themselves, and the events depicted in the episode are considered non-canon.
In "The Italian Bob", Homer gives an old Italian woman a mug with the word "Kentucky" printed on it, offending the woman (according to the woman, Kentucky means "whore" in Italian[it does not]), implying they come from Kentucky.
As a matter of coincidence, Springfield, Kentucky also happens to lie within the borders of Simpson County.
In "Sweets and Sour Marge", Mr. Burns tells Homer that he needs him to help him smuggle in sugar from south of the border, to which Homer replies, "Oh, you mean Tennessee?", implying they live in Kentucky. In another episode, Ned Flanders asks Homer if he wants to go with him south of the border and Homer replies, "Woo hoo, Tennessee!" Episode name needed
Additionally, there are frequent mentions throughout episodes of the state capital, Capital City. The capital of Kentucky, Frankfort, has an airport named "Capital City Airport" and is located within an hour's drive of Springfield, Shelbyville and Simpsonville. In "Bart vs. Lisa vs. the Third Grade", when Bart and Lisa go on a field trip to Capital City, they get lost and meet a bunch of hobos/rednecks, a common stereotype of people in Kentucky.
A factor that could rule out Kentucky is the fact that Springfield's state borders an ocean, whereas Kentucky is landlocked. Also, in The Simpsons Movie, Ned Flanders says that Kentucky is one of the four states that border Springfield.
When discussing the state flag and the appearance of the Confederate battle flag on it, the Capital City Goofball (the Capital City representative to the State Congress) notes that it is especially embarrassing due to Springfield being in a northern state, whereas Kentucky is considered a Southern state. However, it also must be noted that Kentucky never seceded from the Union during the American Civil War, although the state's loyalties were bitterly divided and a rump Confederate government was established in the western portion of the state.
Geographically, there are many things against the Simpsons living in Kentucky. The state is both too small and is not close to the ocean. Also, very few citizens have a southern accent, which would be common in most parts of Kentucky.
In "The Springfield Files", Mulder and Scully said when Homer discovers a UFO (who later turns out to be Mr. Burns under longevity treatment) that there was a UFO sighting in "the heartland of America". This would lead to somewhere in the Midwest, such as Kentucky.
In "Bobby, It's Cold Outside", Scott Bakula when being released from jail upon being cleared as a suspect regarding stolen Christmas presents tells off Chief Wiggum by pointing out that he could have been at NCIS New Orleans two hours earlier. As the series is filmed on-site at New Orleans, this implies that Springfield is within two hours driving distance to New Orleans, pointing to it being in Louisiana.
In "'Tis the Fifteenth Season", Homer buys an electronic astrolabe at the Springfield Heights Promenade. One of the astrolabe's screens displays what appear to be its current latitude and longitude. These coordinates (42° N, 71° W) point to Bridgewater, MA. Also, there is a Springfield, Massachusetts and a West Springfield, Massachusetts.
"Worst Episode Ever" implies that Springfield is located in Massachusetts, as one of Comic Book Guy's pirated videos, a Cold War-era classified mission tape, states that Springfield is designated as a "NWB" (Nuclear Whipping Boy), and the map of Springfield heavily resembles Springfield, Massachusetts.
Also, there was a contest for The Simpsons Movie to find out what the state the Simpsons were located in based on states with had a town called Springfield, and that state would get to have the premiere of that movie. The city that was picked was Springfield, Vermont.
In, "C.E. D'oh" Mr. Burns is going to face trouble as the US government discovered evidence that Mr. Burns dumped nuclear waste into Legoland. The only Legolands that exist in the United States are in California, and Massachusetts.
Chelmsford, MA is also referenced several times throughout the years. The Springfield Town Hall is based on the town hall in Chelmsford, and Zesty's Pizza (which has been a landmark in the small Mass town for decades) appears in the mid Season 20-present opening sequence.
In "Duffless", Homer's driver's license has an address of "Springfield NT 49007". The ZIP code, 49007, belongs to Kalamazoo, Michigan. ("NT" is the postal abbreviation for the Northwest Territories of Canada or the Northern Territory (Australia), however)
In "Three Men and a Comic Book", Bart attempts to redeem a bottle deposit. The refund is a dime; only Michigan has a 10-cent deposit on bottles.
However, in "Take My Wife, Sleaze", Chief Wiggum remarks to Homer on the phone, "Well, uh, be that as it may, the gang is wanted in eight other states and we have a little saying around here: 'let Michigan handle it.'" This dismisses the Michigan theory, as Wiggum is considered an expert on slacking off on his duties and leaving his work to be completed by others.
Among the many sizable immigrant communities in Springfield's state are Norwegians, especially in Springfield's neighboring town of Ogdenville. Similarly, many Minnesotans are of Norwegian descent.
On the other hand, Milhouse expressed shock at children from Ogdenville wearing jerseys from the American football team Minnesota Vikings, proclaiming Springfield to be "Tennessee Titans country", making Minnesota unlikely.
In "A Tale of Two Springfields", as well as the dubiously canonical video game The Simpsons: Hit & Run, it is revealed that Springfield's area code is 636; however, the Real Springfield, Missouri's area code is 417. Missouri also has this area code. The new area code, 939, is in Puerto Rico. Also, the Simpson family's house address, 742 Evergreen Terrace is an actual address in Savannah, Missouri, but its area code is 816.
In The Simpsons Movie, the town attempts to sneak out in front of Russ Cargill up a rope holding a bomb intended to blow up the town. The town raises an old KBBL radio tower up to climb toward the rope. According to the FCC, KBBL is located in Springfield, MO.
In "The City of New York vs. Homer Simpson", when he arrives in New York, Homer tells the rest of the family, "Now remember, criminals prey on small-town folk like us, so if anyone asks we're sophisticated millionaires from the Ozarks." Springfield, Missouri is located within the Ozarks and is commonly referred to as the Queen City of the Ozarks.
In "Bart on the Road", Bart, Milhouse, Nelson and Martin pass through Branson, Missouri on their way to Knoxville, Tennessee. Although it isn't the most direct path, it is possible to take 65 South straight to Branson, Missouri and take 160 East to get into Tennessee and from there to Knoxville.
However, Abraham Simpson II has an inveterate, unexplained hatred of Missouri, implying that it is not his own state. That said, he also claims that Missouri represents the "last time I vote to admit a new state." Missouri was admitted to the Union in 1821, which would make Grampa over 200 years old, so all of his opinions on Missouri may be the result of his senility.
In "Trilogy of Error", Springfield is seen from space and appears to be in Missouri.
In "Burns, Baby Burns", Mr. Burns' long-lost son, Larry Burns, recognizes his father on a train but is unable to board it before it moves away. He asks an attendant standing on the final carriage where it is going and is told "Springfield". Larry knows, but he asks what state. The guard's reply is almost inaudible, but ends in the syllable "-aska". This suggests that Springfield could be in either Nebraska or Alaska.
However, The Simpsons Movie rules out Alaska as they move there, implying that Springfield is located in Nebraska.
Additionally, in "The Springfield Files", Mulder tells Scully that there has been "another unsubstantiated UFO sighting in the heartland of America", referring to Homer's close encounter with an alien (who later turns out to be Mr. Burns under longevity treatment). Traditionally, "the heartland of America" is applied to Eastern Nebraska, where Nebraska's Springfield exists.
The map at the end of "Kill the Alligator and Run" suggests that the Simpsons live somewhere in New England. The southeastern tip of New Hampshire borders the ocean, and Springfield's proximity to the ocean rather than a lake is referenced in some episodes.
In "Adventures in Baby-Getting", when Homer goes to vote in the 2012 election, a Romney campaign banner reads "I Have A House In Your State". Though it is more likely a vague exaggeration of Romney's wealth, Romney did in fact own a house in New Hampshire at the time. New Hampshire also has a nuclear power plant in the southern coastal region of the state.
In "Marge Simpson in: "Screaming Yellow Honkers", Marge is driving and sees a car that is very slow from New Jersey, and Marge tells it to go back to New Jersey, which could give the impression that she is not from NJ. Then again, it could be that Marge is simply falling in line with the age-old running gag of Jersey bashing prevalent in The Simpsons, as well as "Futurama".
Another observation in favor of New Jersey would be the frequent use of the word "Hoagie" to describe a large sandwich on a roll, a term used almost exclusively in the Philly PA area (on the NJ border) and all across New Jersey. An example of this is in "Selma's Choice".
In one episode, when Homer spills his drink on the nuclear control desk, the 'failure' bleeps red in Upstate NY, suggesting its location to be there.
In The Old Man and the Lisa, Seymour Skinner mentioned that the amount of recycling the Junior Achievers managed to accomplish may have earned them enough money to do a field trip to Albany, New York, with it being implied that Springfield was within driving distance to Albany due to the school bus measurement bar.
On a similar note, The City of New York vs. Homer Simpson had it being implied that Springfield was at the very least within walking distance to New York during Homer's youth, as he mentioned that he was traveling through it to get to a Harrisburg Coat store for an irregular coat, and it was also implied that it was also within driving/bus distance from Springfield to New York City.
In "Rosebud", New York was shown to be downstream from Springfield, presumably on the Husdon River. This river flows primarily through New York, with a small amount in New Jersey.
In "I'm Just a Girl Who Can't Say D'oh", Marge and Lisa refer to their play as an Off-Broadway musical. In reality, Off-Broadway solely refers to a subset of theatres in New York City, though Marge and Lisa may have been using the phrase incorrectly.
In "Moe Letter Blues", Moe mentions moving to Springfield because its zip code on a calculator spells "boobs". This would mean that the zip code is 58008, assigned to Barney, North Dakota. However, in "Kill the Alligator and Run", the family says that they are still welcome in North Dakota, but Bart says that he wants to move to the Dakotas, proving that they do not live there.
In "Treehouse of Horror XIII", during "Send in the Clones", when it is shown that the Homer clones will all spread through the United States by tomorrow, one of the Homer faces appears over Ohio.
However, in "Catch 'Em if You Can", the Simpsons are packing up to go to a family birthday party in Dayton, Ohio. This makes the possibility of them living in Ohio questionable, although it is possible that they simply live a short distance away from Dayton.
Simpsons creator Matt Groening was born and raised in Portland, Oregon. He commented that the fictional Springfield is based on Springfield, Oregon, located south of Portland. Like the Simpson family, the Groenings lived on Evergreen Terrace. Oregon boasts a uniquely diverse environment, and many of the geographic landmarks in and around Springfield have Portland analogues; the Murderhorn/Widow's Peak/Mount Springfield range resembles the Cascade Mountains, the Springfield Gorge references the Columbia River Gorge, and the river that runs through the middle of Springfield recalls the Willamette in both appearance and toxicity. While Portland does not border neither an ocean nor a desert, the Pacific and the Oregon High Desert are relatively close by. Oregon is the birthplace of Hunter Murphy.
Many Portland streets share names with characters from the series, including Flanders, Lovejoy, Quimby, Kearney, Van Houten and Terwilliger. Montgomery Burns' name is derived from Portland's Montgomery Park. The Springfield Nuclear Power Plant shares many physical/geographical similarities with the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant, which was built in the early 70s in Rainier, OR and provided power to the Portland area until the plant was decommissioned in 1993. Groening was a student at Lincoln High School at the time of its construction.
Some of the members of the Simpson and Bouvier family are named after Matt Groening's parents and siblings: his father Homer, mother Margaret/Marge (whose maiden name was Wiggum), younger sisters Lisa and Maggie, and older sister Patty. However, Groening substituted Bart for his own name. Groening also confirmed recently that Springfield was in fact based on Springfield, Oregon.
In "Treehouse of Horror XIII", during "Send in the Clones", when it is shown that the Homer clones will spread through all of the United States, one of the Homer faces appears over Oregon in the first frame.
Eugene, Oregon was founded by Eugene Skinner, the same last name of Principal Skinner (Seymour Skinner).
In "Please Homer, Don't Hammer 'Em", Bart is in an arcade with old games, one of which is Polybius, which is said to have only appeared in arcades in the Portland, Oregon area.
In "Stop or My Dog Will Shoot!", the family gets stuck in a corn maze. In effort to get out, Homer repeatedly throws Lisa into the air to try and find an exit. While in the air, Lisa spots the Space Needle from Seattle, Washington. The state of Washington is north of the Oregon boarder, so it could mean that the family lives in the Washington state.
In "The Springfield Files", Mulder and Scully said when Homer discovers a UFO that there was a UFO sighting in "the heartland of America". Oregon is absolutely nowhere near the "heartland", which usually describes the Midwest.
The Simpsons could also live on the East Coast, as in "New Kids on the Blecch", where the warship goes to New York (as seen by the Twin Towers) to destroy the Mad Magazine building.
At least on one occasion, this was brought into doubt, as seen in "We're on the Road to D'oh-where", where Homer says "I have to drive to Oregon".
In "Mr. Lisa Goes to Washington", it is easy to argue that the Simpsons are from South Dakota.
Congressman Bob Arnold also poses for a photo shoot with Lisa Simpson (it is presumed that he takes part in the photo shoot to boost his popularity in his district, and that the only reason he is seeing Lisa is because she is from this very same district). After the photo shoot, the picture is seen back in Springfield in The Springfield Shopper newspaper, which Moe reads to Barney (additional evidence that Congressman Bob Arnold is Springfield’s congressman). In response, Barney says, "If I ever vote, it will be for him."
The 'proof' that the Simpsons are from Springfield, South Dakota comes toward the end of the same episode.
An FBI agent, in a successful attempt to set up Congressman Bob Arnold, poses as an “oil company" executive who wants to drill for oil in Teddy Roosevelt’s head on Mount Rushmore and offers Congressman Bob Arnold a bribe to get permission to do so. Just so there is no confusion, there is an amusing picture showing what this might look like. On the other hand, it would seemingly make sense to be bribing the congressman that actually represents the district which includes Mount Rushmore, thereby placing Springfield in South Dakota. However, South Dakota can also be ruled out since congressman Bob Arnold could be on a natural resources committee in congress and simply knows the lay of the land, but this still doesn't change the fact that the Simpsons are in Congressman Arnold's district.
In "Kill the Alligator and Run", when the family are looking at the map, they decide to visit North Dakota, which Bart says that he always wanted to see Mount Rushmore, but is then told by Lisa that it is in South Dakota. However, it can clearly be seen from the map that the family are banned from the state.
In "Poppa's Got a Brand New Badge", it is shown that the population of Springfield is around 30,000. Springfield, South Dakota has a population of 792.
In "Coming to Homerica", Milhouse states that they are in Tennessee Titans territory, as he and Bart walk past the Ogdenvillians that have moved to Springfield while wearing Minnesota Vikings jerseys.
However, in "'Tis the 30th Season", Homer announces on a road trip when the family is in Tennessee, showing that they do not live ther.e
There is a road sign at the Springfield city limit that lists a distance of 676 miles to Mexico City. Such a distance would imply a setting in the extreme southeast of Texas, close to the Mexican border.
Also, in "The Italian Bob", Homer is seen in an Italian airport waving an American flag while shouting "Don't mess with Texas".
Another reference is in "The Bob Next Door", where it took the Simpson family only a few minutes to get to Mexico, and since Texas borders the ocean and Mexico, it could be considered the place. However, this can be dismissed, because Texas does not border five different states on one side.
To further disprove, in "Radioactive Man", when the group making the film is looking for a location to film in, there is an ad for Texas and also sees an ad for Springfield, further ruling out this Texas.
In "Raging Abe Simpson and His Grumbling Grandson in "The Curse of the Flying Hellfish"", Grandpa Van Houten claims that he and his wife won a Chili cook-off in Beaumont, Texas. The fact that he says the name of the state and not just the city further implies that Springfield is not in Texas.
It, too, is a Southern state, so the comment about Springfield being in a Northern state provides more evidence.
In "Treehouse of Horror IX", during "Starship Poopers", the pacifier signal Maggie transmits to Kang and Kodos is from around the Texas-Louisiana border, near Lake Charles, LA or Port Arthur, TX. However, this is non-canon.
In "Mr. Lisa Goes to Washington", during the reading of the competition essays, a map of the United States is shown, and pans to different locations to show other competitors speaking. Just before Lisa is shown, the map shows the state Springfield is located in (signified by Blinky on the map). The state is the north-western-most state of four states whose boundaries intersect at a single point. There is only one point in the United States where this occurs, and the northwestern of the four states is Utah.
In "Kill Gil, Volumes I & II", the Utah Jazz of the NBA can be seen getting ready to play, although the Jazz could possibly be the visiting team (they obviously are as they are not wearing the typical home NBA color of white).
In "Radioactive Man ", the cast and crew of the Radioactive Man movie are looking for a place to film it in. In a listing, Springfield is listed under "Film Utah".
Springfield, Virginia has an Army base named Fort Myers, which is twelve miles away. It also has a nuclear power plant that is eighty miles away and has two (albeit extinct) volcanoes.
Springfield has the Washington Dulles International Airport, which is 27 miles away, and Richmond (the state capital) also has an airport, named the Richmond International Airport.
Virginia did not allow gay marriages at the time; it has been previously stated that the Simpsons' state does not allow gay marriages.
Virginia has a Navy base and an Air Force base.
In "Treehouse of Horror XIII", during "Send in the Clones", when it is shown that the Homer clones will have spread through the entire United States, one of the faces appears in Virginia in the first frame.
Possible suggestions lead to the affirmation that Springfield is in Virginia. In "Poppa's Got a Brand New Badge", Fat Tony and the mafia head for the Simpson house to demand Homer to comes out in a Sopranos style-cinematic view that shows Interstate 95. If you use this as a basis, Interstate 95 cuts right through present-day Springfield, Virginia, Tennessee is in the southwest border of Virginia, and Springfield is on the water of Potamic River, at Ft. Belvoir (now a museum). The Springfield CDP is recognized by the U.S. Census Bureau with a population of 30,484 as of the 2010 census.
Moe has mentioned that American rock singer Dave Grohl was once mugged in Springfield. Given that Grohl grew up in a place called Springfield in Virginia, this could be considered the correct state.
In "That '90s Show", the rock music genre Grunge was shown to have been invented in Springfield by Homer's band Sadgasm. In real life, Grunge originated in Washington state in the mid-1980s. Therefore, it is plausible that Springfield is located in Washington. Furthermore, Washington-born Grunge musician Kurt Cobain is shown to have a cousin, Marvin residing in Springfield.
Geographically speaking, the Springfield area shares numerous similarities to Washington. For example, the Springfield area is known to have at least one active volcano, Mt. Springfield. Washington state similarly has several active volcanoes, including the well-known Mount St. Helens. This could mean that Springfield is either in, or at least close to, the Washington state. Springfield also has an implied proximity to Canada and in real life, Washington state shares its northern border with this country.
Springfield has a district called Little Seattle, which has many similar qualities to Washington's largest city.
In "Mother Simpson", one of Mona's licenses that Bart and Lisa look at is from Wisconsin. However, this could have been fake, as she was on the run from the police.
In the Powers of 10 couch gag, while the camera zooms out into the universe, it reveals that the Simpson house is located in Springfield, Illinois. While Springfield, Illinois has a Shelbyville fifty miles to the southeast and a nuclear power plant forty miles to the northeast, there has not been any indication that it is the Springfield, and could be coincidental. However, the show does make an indirect reference to the Illinois city; when Homer is in a graveyard at night digging a plot, discarded dirt covers up the grave of Adlai Stevenson (a prominent Illinois politician and two-time US presidential candidate, buried in Bloomington, Illinois, 50 miles to the northeast). In "G.I. (Annoyed Grunt)", Jeremy Freedman quits his job to go work at "Jolly Tamale", which is a small but somewhat popular Mexican restaurant in Springfield, Illinois. The Simpson family's street, Evergreen Terrace, is a notoriously poor section of Springfield, Illinois.
The Powers of 10 couch gag again left the location of Springfield something of a mystery. While the camera zooms out into the universe, it is seen that Springfield is placed somewhere in the Midwest, probably near the Mississippi River (Iowa, or maybe Missouri). The latter location is also suggested in "Lisa the Tree Hugger" in which Lisa tries to protect Springfield's oldest redwood tree by climbing up and living in it in order to prevent a team from cutting it down. When looking down on Springfield, she sees a structure resembling the Gateway Arch in St. Louis, Missouri (and also the Space Needle in Seattle, Washington). The Statue of Liberty in New York and the Eiffel Tower in Paris can also be seen, along with a large river. It should be noted that the Eiffel Tower appears to be closer than the Statue of Liberty, which is impossible. Similarly, Mother Simpson at one point during Homer's reunion with his mother had an American White Pelican landing on Homer and dropping a fish down his pants, implying that Springfield was located near the Mississippi River valley.
In "Marge vs. the Monorail", Lyle Lanley proclaims "I've sold monorails to Brockway, Ogdenville and North Haverbrook! And by gum, it put them on the map!" He then holds up a map of America, where Brockway, Ogdenville and North Haverbrook are the only cities shown. Marge later drives to North Haverbrook (where everybody resents there being a Springfield Monorail there, despite the sign at the city limits saying "Where the Springfield Monorail is KING!"). The map shows North Haverbrook in the Midwest, approximately in Iowa. However, the same map shows Brockway in South Carolina and Ogdenville in the southwest around the California-Arizona border (or maybe in New Mexico), despite "Coming to Homerica" showing that Ogdenville is Springfield's neighbor. It should be noted that since the Springfield Monorail seller was a fraud, the map may not be accurate and made to make sure all three cities fit on the map.
In "Scenes from the Class Struggle in Springfield", the Simpsons go to the Ogdenville outlet mall in order to get a new television. The sign in Springfield indicates that it is only 90 miles to Ogdenville.
In "Mr. Lisa Goes to Washington", when it is Lisa's turn to say her essay, it shows a map where Springfield is in "Illinois".
In "The Springfield Files", Mulder tells Scully that there has been "another unsubstantiated UFO sighting in the heartland of America", referring to Homer's close encounter with an alien (who later turns out to be Mr. Burns under longevity treatment), so Springfield was presumably somewhere in the Midwest.
In "My Big Fat Geek Wedding", Homer suggests that Springfield is within a state bordering the Great Lakes; after Skinner tells Homer if he could just speak to Edna for a moment and Homer tells Skinner that he didn't tell him to say that, Skinner asks Homer why is he taking Homer's advice, and Homer says its because he's successfully married. Skinner then notices that there is no ring on Homer's finger, so Homer says, "Oh, why did I take it off? Oh, right. To see if I could skip it across Lake Michigan." However, this is only slightly relevant - he could have been visiting the state at the time.
In "You Won't Believe What This Episode is About - Act Three Will Shock You! There is a zoom out of Springfield, it depicts the town in a mountainous region, with several nearby towns to the north, most likely Shelbyville, and to the west, more specifically where West Springfield should be. It continues to zoom out to the entire planet, hinting that Springfield is in the central portion of the United States.
West of the Mississippi
In several episodes, the radio and television stations in Springfield use the call sign KBBL. All radio and television station call signs west of the Mississippi River, except for few grandfathered stations, begin with the letter K while stations east of the Mississippi River begin with the letter W. This implies that Springfield must be west of the Mississippi River, because its television station uses the call sign KBBL, television being non-existent at the time of creation of the K and W call sign system, unless the stations in question operate on a dual-license arrangement (an owner of a grandfathered radio station that later received a license for a sister television station), as in KYW-AM radio station and KYW-TV/KYW-DT television stations, in Philadelphia, KDKA-AM and KDKA-TV in Pittsburgh, both of which are in Pennsylvania, and WDAY-FM, WDAY-AM, and WDAY-TV/WDAY-DT in Fargo and WDAZ-TV/WDAZ-DT in Grand Forks, North Dakota.
Also, in "Simpsons Tall Tales", when the Simpsons arrive on a train to Delaware, they pass the Mississippi River, meaning that they live somewhere west of it.
Springfield, Massachusetts is referenced by the "Springfield Memorial Bridge", which separates Springfield from West Springfield in the show and in Massachusetts. Another Massachusetts reference is that Mayor Quimby and his political machine have similarities to the powerful Kennedy family, including the mayor and his family's thick Boston accent, even though Springfield, Massachusetts natives DO NOT have the famous New England accent. As for Simpsons writers and producers, more of them attended college in Massachusetts than any other state. A segment on WFXT revealed that Springfield's city hall is actually copied from that of Chelmsford, Massachusetts. This, however, could simply mean nothing. The bridge could be a coincidence, and Quimby may not have grown up in Springfield.
In "Mother Simpson", Homer discovers that the tombstone he always thought belonged to his mother actually belongs to Walt Whitman (causing Homer to pummel said tombstone and curse "Leaves of Grass, my ass!"). Walt Whitman is buried at Harleigh Cemetery in Camden, New Jersey.
In "Bart the Fink", when Bart asks the local bankers about the check he gave to Krusty, a phone call is made to New York at 2:01 PM, then to the Cayman Islands at 2:02 PM. Afterwards, a fax is made to Washington D.C. at 2:03 PM, and Krusty is arrested in Springfield at 2:04 PM. The first three places are all in the UTC-5 time zone when the Northern Hemisphere is in winter (also when the episode was first aired). Also, assuming the sequence of events is meant to show how quickly the authority reacts to tax evasion, that would put Springfield in the North American Eastern Time Zone.
In "Lisa the Iconoclast", it is revealed that settlers founded Springfield in 1796, which was before the Louisiana Purchase. Therefore, Springfield must be east of the Mississippi River.
In "Poppa's Got a Brand New Badge", Fat Tony and the mafia drives into downtown Springfield past a highway identification sign that very closely resembles United States Interstate signs, and bears the route number 95. The real I-95 is a major north-south route along the east coast of the United States. It should be noted, however, that this was a parody of The Sopranos, which takes place in New Jersey, through which I-95 runs. However, The Simpsons cannot take place in New Jersey, as Homer and Bart must drive extensively to reach the Edison National Historic Site.
In "Old Yeller-Belly", the Amish build a tree house for the Simpsons, indicating that Springfield is in either Ohio or Pennsylvania. Also, Luann Van Houten mentions Mechanicsburg; there is a Mechanicsburg in both Ohio and Pennsylvania.
There is a Springfield in Virginia through which I-95 runs; while there is no Mechanicsburg in Virginia, there are four communities named Mechanicsville.
In "Bart's Comet", when a comet is threatening to strike Springfield, Professor Frink devises a plan in which a rocket is fired at the comet. The rocket is shown being launched from the Springfield Armory, which was established in Springfield, Massachusetts during the Revolutionary War, and still exists as a historical museum.
In "New Kids on the Blecch", L.T. Smash is able to drive an aircraft carrier to New York City.
In "Boy-Scoutz 'n the Hood", on the map of Krusty Burger locations, Homer points to the one off the east coast, implying that they live on the east coast.
Shown in various episodes inside of The Android's Dungeon & Baseball Card Shop is a Boston Red Sox pennant, a hometown baseball team in Springfield, Massachusetts.
There is a strong case for the non-existent state being west of the Mississippi River, particularly somewhere on the west coast. This is supported by the facts that:
- Springfield sits on the ocean
- it has various features that only the west coast has:
- redwood tree(s)
- a TV station that starts with a K (assuming that the Federal Communications Commission of the Simpsons's universe mirrors the real world FCC)
- sunsets over the ocean
In "Colonel Homer", the town also has a country music radio station, which is KUDD. "K" as the first call letter usually indicates a radio station west of the Mississippi River, whereas "W" as the first call letter usually indicates a radio station east of the Mississippi River. Most of the exceptions to the rule (such as station KDKA in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, WFAA and WBAP-AM/WBAP-TV in Dallas, Texas, WOAI in San Antonio, Texas, WOW in Omaha, Nebraska, WDAY in Fargo, North Dakota, or WHB in Kansas City, Missouri) were assigned call letters before this convention was established.
It should be noted that in "Homer Alone", the lobby of Rancho Relaxo (located in the Springfield Mountains) plays the radio station "Coma", whose call letters are WKOMA. It is also possible that if the town was located next to the Mississippi River, they could also receive "W" stations on their radio.
Several episodes indicate that Springfield has an ocean coastline.
In "Boy-Scoutz 'n the Hood", Bart, Homer, and the Junior Campers float out to sea during a rafting trip. They are rescued by floating towards an unmanned oil rig which nevertheless features the Krusty Burger Oil Rig. Offshore oil rigs in the United States are found off the coasts of the Gulf of Mexico and California. Earlier, when they were still on the river, the Krusty Burger map shows two locations at two oil rigs, one off of each coast. However, when the stranded group discovered the nearby restaurant, Homer points at the east coast oil rig.
"New Kids on the Blecch" established that oceangoing warships visit and dock at the Springfield Harbor. However, the skyline is similar to New York City and there is a reference to destroying the Mad Magazine headquarters.
"Simpson Tide" also shows that the submarine Homer is commanding travels west out of the Springfield Harbor into Russian waters.
Springfield is also served by the Union Pacific Railroad, which runs in the west coast of the United States.
In "Ice Cream of Margie (with the Light Blue Hair)", Snake Jailbird reports a traffic jam at the 101-405 interchange, both of which run up the Pacific Coast of the United States. Their interchange is in the San Fernando Valley in Los Angeles, California.
In "El Viaje Misterioso de Nuestro Jomer (The Mysterious Voyage of Homer)", Marge notes that Springfield slopes down in a westward direction, lending more credibility to the West Coast theory.
Springfield is near a junction of five states (in real life, no such junction exists which means it could be a fictional state), yet it borders the ocean (but via river); it has a canyon, a desert, and mountains, including the tallest mountain in the United States. Plus, the city has a vulnerability to every sort of natural disaster, which no one area would have. Sometimes it snows in Springfield, the town once experienced a hurricane, its ocean coast has an oil platform close offshore, and Springfield's western side (which is three times the size of Texas) is a vast oil field.
In "King of the Hill", Bart claims that the Murderhorn is more than four miles higher than Springfield's elevation. Actually, the tallest mountain in the United States, Mount McKinley in Alaska, rises less than four miles above sea level.
Additionally, in "Boy-Scoutz 'n the Hood", Bart, Homer, Ned and Rod are lost at sea, which would imply they live on either the West or East coasts.
In "Kamp Krusty", Tijuana is just a day trip away, meaning that Springfield could logically be in either California, New Mexico or Arizona.
In "You Only Move Twice", a newspaper is seen indicating that Hank Scorpio has taken control of the East coast. Also, Cypress Creek (the community where the Simpsons move, which is said to be upstate) is seen with mountains, so Springfield has to be in one of the mountain states.
The revelation that Springfield was once entirely in the telephone area code 636 and that chaos erupted when half the town was switched to the new area code 939 does not clarify the situation; area code 636 is in Missouri, while 939 is in Puerto Rico (area code 939 was not in effect when the episode "A Tale of Two Springfields" originally aired in 2000).
In "Lisa Gets an "A"", Superintendent Chalmers refers to Springfield Elementary School as "the most dilapidated in all of Missouri", and shocks everyone (viewers and characters alike) by this disclosure, before continuing with "That's why it was shut down and moved here, brick by brick." There also happens to be a Lake Springfield and a city named Springfield in Missouri.
There is also evidence that the Simpsons live in Louisiana. In "Treehouse of Horror IX", during "Starship Poopers", when Kang initiates telepathic contact with Maggie, Maggie responds by transmitting a signal with her pacifier sucking. As the camera pans away from earth, the concentric radio signals are shown to be emanating from Louisiana. However, this is considered non-canon. Furthermore, Marge is of French ancestry (her maiden name is Bouvier), so maybe she is Cajun.
In "The Bart Wants What It Wants", Homer says to Lisa that he will pay for her to attend any college in South Carolina.
In "Bart on the Road", when Lisa goes to work with Homer, he points out the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant's location on a map of America, which it appears to be in a fictional state that is south of Florida and is given as a place which would really be in the ocean.
A central highway called Highway 401 is mentioned in several episodes. There is a central highway named Highway 401 in the Province of Ontario, Canada, that passes through the City of Toronto. This has also lead to speculation of Toronto being the inspiration to Springfield (or of Springfield, Ontario being the show's location); however as mentioned above, the countless pieces of evidence of Springfield being in the United States automatically disprove this theory. However, Springfield has been shown to be close to the Canadian border, as the Simpsons have made day-trips into Canada, and everybody in Springfield knows the Canadian Anthem. Also, in "The Otto Show" visiting rock band Spinal Tap mentions when their tour bus was driving down Route 401 they first thought they were going to Shelbyville. In Delaware State Route 401 ends just north of Shelbyville, DE. Bart tells Milhouse Route 401 is 4 miles from his house.
In "Mr. Lisa Goes to Washington", the Simpsons' address contains the ZIP code 192005, a made-up ZIP code obviously, as real ZIP codes are five digits.
In "Lisa the Beauty Queen", Lisa greets a boatload of immigrants to be deported. Springfield must have access to the coasts via a river or lake.
Various other episodes show traveling characters:
- In "The City of New York vs. Homer Simpson", Homer has a flashback from a time when he stopped in NYC on a bus trip to Harrisburg (presumably PA). The fact that Homer was traveling through New York to get to Harrisburg would seem to suggest that he had to travel south to get to Pennsylvania, thus placing Springfield in either New York or New England, though the bus could have passed Harrisburg and Homer didn't notice.
- In "Old Money", Abraham Simpson had to cross the state border to reach a casino.
- In "Marge in Chains", when Snake steals the Kwik-E-Mart, a road sign reads "63 miles to North Haverbrook and 678 miles to Mexico City". That would place Springfield either within Mexican territory or in the southernmost tip of Texas. However, the very same road sign contradicts with the established location of North Haverbrook somewhere between South Dakota and Nebraska, as seen in "Marge vs. the Monorail".
- In "The Wizard of Evergreen Terrace", Bart and Homer visit the Thomas Edison museum in New Jersey.
- In "Bart on the Road", Bart, Milhouse, Martin, and Nelson have also been to Branson, Missouri by car at nighttime, and Knoxville, Tennessee by the next day.
- "Viva Ned Flanders" (and other episodes in which characters visit Las Vegas) establishes that Springfield is within an easy day's drive of Las Vegas by car.
- "New Kids on the Blecch" establishes that Springfield is only a few minutes' sail from New York City by ship.
- The family has been to New York City and Canada by bus.
- In "Simpson Tide", when Homer joins the US Navy reserve, a map shows his submarine's route leaving Springfield on the US Pacific coast.
- Homer is shown driving into Montana, presumably on a short trip.
- The family is shown driving over the Mississippi River on route to Washington, D.C.
- Ned Flanders falls for one of Homer's pranks by going to Montana to meet Jesus by Train.
- Skinner drives Willie's car from Springfield to Orlando, Florida and passes a sign saying Orlando, 2653 miles. If Skinner drives on real-life roads it would put him in South-east Oregon, Idaho or California.
- In "Lost Verizon", Marge, Homer, Lisa, and Maggie take a 3700-mile car trip to Machu Picchu to search for the bird that they think it was Bart.
- In "Boy-Scoutz 'n the Hood", Homer pulls out a map of Krusty Burger locations in the US, where it clearly indicates that there are Krusty Burger restaurants in the following states/areas:
- Northwestern Nevada on the border of Southeastern Oregon and Northeastern California
- Southeastern border of Utah
- Southeastern corner of Arizona
- Southeastern border area of Texas or (possibly) the eastern border of Louisiana
- Midpoint connection of Missouri, Arkansas, Mississippi, Tennessee and Kentucky
- A point around Alabama, Georgia and Florida connecting borders
- A location looking like Northern Kentucky, which touches Indiana, Ohio and Virginia
In "The Old Man and the Key", Grampa states that Springfield is 1000 kilometers from Branson, Missouri. A circle of exactly 1000 kilometers would sweep (clockwise) southwestern Texas, eastern New Mexico, mid-eastern Colorado, northwestern Nebraska, center-southeastern South Dakota, central Minnesota, northern Wisconsin, central Michigan, central Ohio, southwestern West Virginia, a very small and uninhabited segment in the easternmost tip of Kentucky, southwestern Virginia, eastern Tennessee, western North Carolina, northwestern South Carolina, central Georgia, northwestern Florida and the Gulf of Mexico.
In The Simpsons Movie, Ned Flanders and Bart hike to the top of a mountain, where Flanders states that from the summit, "you can see the four states that border Springfield: Ohio, Nevada, Maine and Kentucky." These states are, in fact, nowhere near each other and are not linked to each other, thus they cannot be linked to Springfield. However it should be noted that all of the states Flanders indicates have "Springfields" in them, except for Nevada (though ironically, Nevada is the only place where an official life-sized scale replica of the Simpson house can be found). However, Lisa says that West Springfield is three times the size of Texas. Ned's joke is just a joke and not meant to be taken literally like most other hints.
The only place resembling the shape of Springfield is in Ontario, Canada near stone creek opposite Springfield, Illinois. Additionally, in "The Simpsons Guy", when Bart prank calls Moe's Tavern with Stewie Griffin, he dials the area code 519, which is an area code in Ontario. However, it is quite clear that Springfield is definitely in the US, and the roads, landscape and terrain are completely different.
Also, in The Simpsons Movie, it is the United States government that encloses Springfield in the dome, making Canada an impossible location for it.
Additionally, in "The Bart of War", Horatio McCallister says "Aye, not a hymn to war, like our national anthem, but a sweet, soothing hymn, like the national anthem of Canada." This further disproves the Canadian theory.
In "Bart on the Road", Bart, Milhouse, Nelson and Martin pretend to go to Canada for a grammar rodeo, also disproving the Canada theory. Plus, Springfield got a hurricane once and hurricanes are extremely rare on the Hudson Bay or Great Lakes. Also, the provinces of Canada are British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward island, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nunavut, Yukon, and Northwest Territories.
This said, Springfield, though in the US, is implied to be at least somewhat close to Canada.
Australian news publication Queensland Times suggested in February 2015 that Springfield may in fact be located in Australia, in view of the appearance of the Moon when Elon Musk viewed it from 742 Evergreen Terrace. However, as with the Canada interpretation, The Simpsons has been proven beyond doubt to be set in the United States, ruling out any possible non-US setting. Moreover, numerous actions of Springfieldians, including driving to Canada, Mexico and New York, and their use of American accents, would be impossible if Springfield were located anywhere other than North America.
On the other hand, Springfield does share elements of its physical geography with Australia. West Springfield, for instance, is a large, desert-like region, apparently three times larger than Texas; an almost perfect match with the Australian Outback.
David Silverman, a director for the Simpsons, has joked that Springfield is in the fictional state of "North Takoma" (or "North Tacoma"). This is substantiated by the state abbreviations NT and TA used within the show. However, this has never been officially confirmed in any canonical episode of the show or by other Simpsons producers.
Also, on Homer's driver's license, the state is NT and the zip code is 49007, which is a Kalamazoo, Michigan zip code. It seems likely that Springfield would exist in a fictional state, as it has a different flag from others. However, it is possible they could still be in a real state, as Nash Castor mentions the Springfield primary and "49 other primaries" in "E. Pluribus Wiggum". However, every real state name has been mentioned at least once in a canonical episode, except Arkansas and Oklahoma.
The proposed identity of the state "NT" is also seen on letters (bills/magazines) addressed to the Simpsons in "Mr. Lisa Goes to Washington".
Springfield is shown on a map in Season 32 to be located in a fictitious, landlocked state, possibly North Takoma, bordering Colorado, Kansas and Nebraska. However, not only is the map from an episode set in the future and thus considered non-cannon, but also extremely inconsistent with previously established geographical details, such as a proximity to the ocean, and West Springfield's size.
Taking a grain of salt with the map seen in Mother and Child Reunion, there're only two instances seen in the series that line up with this being the true location of Springfield. The first being in a canon episode, "Much Apu About Nothing", where Bart's head obscures the central portion of the United States, the same general area where this fictious state is located. And in a non-canon episode, the "Treehouse of Horror XIII" when briefing a projected summary of where the Homers will be, a cluster forms in the exact location where this supposed state resides.
In "Trash of the Titans", a "Plan B" exists that lets the city move. It is possible that Springfield's state has been in a constant state of flux over the years considering the amount of pollution it theoretically creates and diversity of animal life shown. This is also supported in "Viva Ned Flanders", where Lisa states that she is surprised that they allowed Mr. Burns' Casino to come along when they moved the city.
Where Springfield Might Not Be
- Note: Some evidence is based on presuming the convention that one does not say the state name when mentioning a city in the same state that they reside.
- Alabama: In "I Married Marge", one of Homer's competing job applicants said that he was from the Alabama chapter of Alpha Tau. It is unlikely someone would say that if Springfield were in Alabama, although since the applicant is talking about his college experience, this could refer to the University of Alabama rather than the state. In "They Saved Lisa's Brain", Dr. Hibbert says "Maybe I should just move back to Alabama".
- Alaska: In "Marge on the Lam", when Marge and Ruth Powers are chased by the police, a road sign reads, "State Line: 2 miles". Alaska, Hawaii, and the insular areas are the only places where driving to other states directly is not possible. In "Fear of Flying", Kwazy Klown Airlines offers the Simpsons free tickets to anywhere in the United States, excluding Alaska and Hawaii, "the freak states", and when Homer told his family about the "good news", Bart asks to go to Alaska and Lisa to Hawaii. In "Home Sweet Homediddly-Dum-Doodily", Homer asks, "We leave you the kids for three hours and the county takes them away?!" to Grampa. Alaska and Louisiana are the two states that do not divide into counties, but boroughs and parishes respectively. In The Simpsons Movie, the family move to Alaska, showing that they don't live there.
- Arizona: In "King-Size Homer", Homer reveals that Springfield observes daylight saving time when he says "8:58. First time I've ever been early for work, except for all those daylight savings days." At the time when this episode was first aired (November 5, 1995), Hawaii, most of Arizona, and a large portion of Indiana did not observe daylight saving time. However, Springfield could be in the area of Arizona that doesn't observe daylight savings time, which would mean they lived on an reservation. In "Kill the Alligator and Run", Arizona is one of the only two states that the Simpsons are allowed in (the other is North Dakota), but Homer says that Arizona smells funny, so Marge crosses Arizona off the chart. This implies that they do not live in Arizona. Also, there is no place in Arizona called Springfield. In "Dogtown", when Kent asks Anger Watkins about his take on Homer's court case determining that a dog's life is more valuable than a human's life, he furiously exclaims that this is the craziest legal decision ever made outside of Arizona. This also implies that Springfield isn't in Arizona.
- Arkansas: In "Dancin' Homer", it's learned that the state capital has a Major League Baseball team. Little Rock, the capital of Arkansas, doesn't.
- California: In "And Maggie Makes Three", Homer talks to Joey who works as a shoeshiner at his "dream job", which is Barney's Bowlarama. He promises that he and Joey will someday make it to California. In "Whiskey Business", Marge mentions that Capital City is "the more exciting of the twin cities." Carl then explains to Lenny that the twin city moved to California "to become a star, but it just became Glendale."
- Colorado: In "Little Big Girl", Marge mentions that Bart and Darcy charged $200,000 worth of bubble gum with Homer's credit card in Colorado.
- Connecticut: In "Homer Simpson, This Is Your Wife", when Marge sees Lisa at the door of Charles Heathbar's house, Marge says, "Lisa, what are you doing in the Nutmeg State?" The Nutmeg State is Connecticut. In "Changing of the Guardian", Marge tells Homer how if they die, their kids could become wards of the state, to which Homer replies: "Connecticut?" and Marge replies: "No, our state." to which Homer screams; therefore Connecticut is not the state they live in.
- Delaware: In "Simpsons Tall Tales", the family goes on a trip to Delaware.
- Florida: In "Bart vs. Australia", Homer tells Bart that next time he should commit a crime in Orlando, Florida. In "Kill the Alligator and Run", the family goes on a vacation to Florida, which Homer refers to as "America's Wang". They later get forbidden for visiting Florida ever again.
- Georgia: In "Homer vs. the Eighteenth Amendment", Homer asks Marge "What about that freezer lady in Georgia?" when trying to console her. In "'Tis the 30th Season", the Simpsons go from Springfield to Tennessee and then to Georgia.
- Hawaii: In "So It's Come to This: A Simpsons Clip Show", Homer offers to take his family to Hawaii. Also, in "Burns Verkaufen der Kraftwerk", Horst tells SNPP alcoholic employees that they will spend six weeks at a drying-out facility in Hawaii. In "Fear of Flying", Kwazy Klown Airlines offers the Simpsons free tickets to anywhere in the United States, excluding Alaska and Hawaii, "the freak states." However, when Homer tells his family about the "good news", Bart asks to go to Alaska and Lisa to Hawaii. Also, the Simpsons have easily driven to various parts of the Continental United States, impossible to do from Hawaii. In "King-Size Homer", Homer states that Springfield observes daylight saving time. At the time this episode was aired (November 5, 1995), Hawaii, most of Arizona, and a large portion of Indiana did not observe daylight saving time. In "Little Big Mom", Homer and Bart get their leprosy treated in Hawaii. In "Lost Verizon", one of the bars around the world that Bart calls is from Hawaii. In "Stealing First Base", Milhouse says "My parents took me to Hawaii once."
- Illinois: In real life, the capital of Illinois is Springfield, whereas in The Simpsons, the state capital is Capital City which is depicted as separate from the show's Springfield. In "Dancin' Homer", it's learned that the state capital has a Major League Baseball team. The real-life Springfield, Illinois doesn't.
- Indiana: In "Kiss Kiss Bang Bangalore", Homer believes that he is taking a job in Indiana when he was actually being transferred to India.
- Iowa: In "Moaning Lisa", Lisa wails for the Iowa farmer whose land has been taken away by uncaring bureaucrats, and the West Virginia coal-miner. Dewey Largo explains that "none of these unpleasant people are going to be at the recital next week", implying Springfield is not in Iowa or West Virginia. In "E. Pluribus Wiggum", Springfield plans to schedule its presidential primary before the New Hampshire primary. Iowa holds a caucus instead of a primary, and its caucus is already before New Hampshire's primary.
- Kansas: In "Dancin' Homer", it's learned that the state capital has a Major League Baseball team. Topeka doesn't.
- Louisiana: In "Radio Bart", Chief Wiggum mentions a piece of machinery in Shreveport, Louisiana; usually, when referring to a city in the same state, the state name is usually not mentioned after the name of the city. In "Home Sweet Homediddly-Dum-Doodily", Homer asks, "We leave you the kids for three hours, and the county takes them away?" to Grampa. Alaska and Louisiana are the two states that do not divide into counties, but boroughs and parishes, respectively.
- Maine: In "Dancin' Homer", it's learned that the state capital has a Major League Baseball team. Augusta doesn't.
- Maryland: In "Lisa the Iconoclast", it is revealed that settlers left Maryland and founded Springfield.
- Massachusetts: When the family went to London, they were unable to navigate the roundabout, an traffic intersection relatively prevalent in Massachusetts. When they went to Tokyo and ate at America Town, Homer was upset they were stuck at a Mass-shaped table. In "Sideshow Bob's Last Gleaming", Sideshow Bob dismisses the air show as "butt-cut Alabamians spewing colored smoke from their whizz jets", and Homer tells Sideshow Bob to "go back to Massachusetts". In "We're on the Road to D'oh-where", while eating at Skobo's, Homer makes a reference to Massachusetts' laws on gay marriage by telling Bart, "You know, it's legal there for a guy to marry his son." Also, in "The Mook, the Chef, the Wife and Her Homer", Otto used corporal punishment on Bart after hijacking the bus, but Skinner does not allow it. Massachusetts allows corporal punishment. According to Lisa, WS is three times bigger that Texas. If it is true then it would be impossible for Springfield to be located in Massachusetts as this state isn't bigger than Texas. In "The Town", the family first flies and then moves to Boston, which Bart says is "a thousand miles away" from Springfield, thereby placing Springfield anywhere in Wisconsin, Iowa, Southern Missouri, Arkansas, Southwest Mississippi, or Alabama.
- Michigan: In "Take My Wife, Sleaze", after Homer calls Chief Wiggum to report that the Hell's Satans kidnapped Marge, Wiggum says to Homer over the phone, "We have a little saying around here: 'Let Michigan handle it.'" In "Oh Brother, Where Art Thou?", as the Simpsons drive home from Detroit, they pass a sign that reads "Now Leaving Michigan". In "Warrin' Priests (Part One)", the Lovejoys mention taking a trip to Michigan, which would indicate Springfield isn't in Michigan, and the "Welcome to Michigan" sign is seen when the Lovejoys' car enters Michigan.
- Minnesota: In "Dancin' Homer", it's learned that the state capital has a Major League Baseball team. St. Paul doesn't.
- Mississippi: Principal Skinner notes that selling boys is only legal in Springfield's state and Mississippi in "Simpsoncalifragilisticexpiala(Annoyed Grunt)cious".
- Missouri: In "Lisa Gets an "A"", Superintendent Chalmers says that Springfield Elementary School was voted the worst elementary school in Missouri and was torn down and moved to the current state brick by brick. In addition, during "The Old Man and the Key", Lisa remarks "Branson's a thousand miles away, and we've got no car", which rules out any place in Missouri, counting out the fact that the expression was not an exaggeration. In "Homer Badman", Abe hangs a 49-star American flag because he does not recognize Missouri. Also, the town's area codes are 939, which is for Puerto Rico, and 636, which is a Missouri area code but for St. Louis while Springfield, Missouri's is 417. In "The Road to Cincinnati," Skinner and Chalmers pass through Missouri on their way to Cincinnati, which means Springfield is in a state west of Missouri.
- Montana: In "Dancin' Homer", it's learned that the state capital has a Major League Baseball team. Helena doesn't.
- Nebraska: In "A Father's Watch", Chief Wiggum says to Sideshow Mel, "Shut up, Mel! Your kids live in Nebraska with your mom!"
- Nevada: In "Viva Ned Flanders", Homer and Ned try and run away from their "wives", which is apparently unconscionable in Las Vegas. When security and other Vegas residents catch them, they kick Ned and Homer across the state line, implying that they are no longer welcome in Nevada, at least for a period of time.
- New Hampshire: In "E. Pluribus Wiggum", Lisa mentions that the new date of Springfield's presidential primary is earlier than New Hampshire's primary.
- New Jersey: In "The Wizard of Evergreen Terrace", Homer and Bart drive to New Jersey with the intention of destroying Thomas Edison's hinged chair invention. In "Catch 'Em if You Can", Homer and Marge fly into New Jersey during the montage of Bart and Lisa chasing after them. In "Marge Simpson in: "Screaming Yellow Honkers"", Marge tells somebody to go back to New Jersey.
- New Mexico: In "Boy-Scoutz 'n the Hood", Homer looks at the Krusty Burger map and says "Hey, there's a new Mexico!" Assuming that Homer is smart enough to know his own state, Springfield is not in New Mexico. The same joke was repeated in "Homer vs. Dignity", when Mr. Burns is surprised to learn that there is a New Mexico.
- New York: In "22 Short Films About Springfield", Principal Skinner makes up the word "steamed hams" and claims that it is a "regional dialect" of upstate New York. In "The City of New York vs. Homer Simpson", Homer hates New York. However, Homer only mentions hating the city of New York, so Springfield could very well be in another part of the state of New York. Many residents of upstate New York, in fact, do share a dislike of New York City and its suburban areas. In "Lisa the Drama Queen", Marge acts amazed that Lisa got a letter all the way from New York City, strengthening the case against Springfield being in New York.
- North Carolina: In "Bart-Mangled Banner", Mayor Quimby compares the national hatred of Springfield caused by Bart's mooning of the American flag to that of "Hitler City, North Carolina" before it changed its name to Charlotte.
- North/South Dakota: In "Kill the Alligator and Run", the family discuss which states they are still welcome in, and one of the states is North Dakota. Bart then says "I've always wanted to see Mount Rushmore!" Marge then tells him it is in South Dakota.
- Ohio: In "Homer and Apu", Apu said that Kwik-E-Mart is known as Stop-O-Mart in Ohio, as when he says, "He is the benevolent, enlightened president and C.E.O. of Kwik-E-Mart, and in Ohio, Stop-O-Mart." In "The Road to Cincinnati", Skinner and Chalmers pass a sign that says Cincinnati is 800 miles away, followed by another sign that says Cincinnati is 400 miles away. There is no city in Ohio that is 400 or more miles away from Cincinnati.
- Oklahoma: In "Dancin' Homer", it's learned that the state capital has a Major League Baseball team. Oklahoma City doesn't.
- Oregon: In "Dancin' Homer", it is learned that the capital city has a Major League Baseball team. Salem does not. Additionally, everything said against Oregon in the section up top clearly shows it is not Oregon. In "We're on the Road to D'oh-where", Homer says "I have to drive to Oregon".
- Pennsylvania: In "Marge Gamer", Marge says "Kids, get in the car! We're going to Pennsylvania!" In "Home Away from Homer", the Flanderses move away to Pennsylvania for a temporary period of time.
- Rhode Island: In "Pygmoelian", referring to Moe's liquor license, Lenny says that the license is not only good in Rhode Island but was also expired in 1973 and signed by Moe, to which Moe replies, "Yeah, yeah, I've been meaning to get that updated for this state and real". Also, in "The Simpsons Guy", after the Griffins (from Rhode Island) gets lost after their car is stolen, they stumble across Springfield. Stewie says, "Springfield, eh? What state?"
- South Carolina: In "Dancin' Homer", it's learned that the state capital has a Major League Baseball team. Columbia doesn't.
- Tennessee: In "Bart on the Road", Lisa tells Homer that they need an item sent from Tennessee for Bart to courier.
- Texas: In "Raging Abe Simpson and His Grumbling Grandson in "The Curse of the Flying Hellfish"", Grandpa Van Houten says that he won a chili cook-off in Beaumont, Texas. In "Who Shot Mr. Burns? (Part Two)", Chief Wiggum says to Mr. Burns "No jury in the world's going to convict a baby. Hmm, maybe Texas". In "Old Money", the ghost of Beatrice Simmons says, "They've got me haunting a family in Texas".
- Utah: In "Bart's Comet", after Principal Skinner discovers that Bart is responsible for the weather balloon prank, Bart says, "Race you to Utah!" to Milhouse. Also, in "Homer vs. Lisa and the 8th Commandment", Bart is watching the Top Hat Channel. That channel is not available in Utah or Florida. In "Little Big Girl", Bart and Darcy travel to Utah to get married. Utah in primarily dominated by the Mormon Church and Springfield is not shown to be.
- Virginia: In "Dancin' Homer", it's learned that the state capital has a Major League Baseball team. Richmond doesn't.
- Washington: In "Dancin' Homer", it's learned that the state capital has a Major League Baseball team. Olympia doesn't.
- Washington, D.C.: In "Mother Simpson", it is shown that there is a state college in Washington D.C. This means that Springfield is in a state, not in the District of Columbia nor in any of the insular areas. In "Mr. Lisa Goes to Washington" the family travels to Washington, D.C.
- Wisconsin: In "The Bart of War", after Bart says, "Hey, some jerks cleaned our field", Nelson says, "It's awful. It looks like Wisconsin." Also in "Walking Big and Tall" Homer tells his friends at Moe's what nicknames he doesn't want to hear from them anymore and one of them is Wisconsin skinny. This term is used particulary in Wisconsin.
- West Virginia: In "Moaning Lisa", Lisa wails for the Iowa farmer whose land has been taken away by uncaring bureaucrats, and the West Virginia coalminer. Mr. Largo explains that "none of these unpleasant people are going to be at the recital next week". This implies that Springfield is neither in Iowa nor West Virginia.
- The South: In "The PTA Disbands", a historical reenactment has the American Civil War soldiers of Fort Springfield wearing Union blue, "heroically" massacring wounded Confederate soldiers in gray uniforms who have come to surrender. As such, Springfield cannot have been in one of the states that sided with the Confederate States of America. Springfield is also not in the South because when Carl and Lenny are handling nuclear waste in "Marge vs. the Monorail", Lenny wonders where they dump it. Carl says,"Probably in one of those southern states where the governor's a crook." In "Bart vs. Lisa vs. the Third Grade", the Capital City Governor states that the state flag, which contains a Confederate flag, "is an embarrassment, particularly as we are a northern state." Therefore, Springfield is not in Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia or Florida.
- Georgia, Missouri, Tennessee, California, Nevada, and Utah: In "Bart on the Road", Nelson says, "I've always wanted to see Macon, Georgia". When the boys arrive in Branson, Missouri, Bart refers to the place with "Missouri". They are also seen entering the border of Tennessee explicitly. When Homer replaces the light bulbs on the nuclear plant map, California, Nevada, and Utah are shown with all their plants' names and none is Springfield.
- Arizona, North Dakota and South Dakota: In "Kill the Alligator and Run", the family marks on a map that they are no longer welcome in Florida, which leaves Arizona (ruled out because it smells funny, according to Homer), North Dakota and Springfield. Also, Marge has said in numerous episodes that the whole state of Florida hated the Simpsons. Also, Bart said he wanted to see Mount Rushmore, but then Marge told him that it is in South Dakota.
- Minnesota, Alabama and New York: In "Mr. Lisa Goes to Washington", when kids from different parts of America give their speeches, kids from Rosemount, Mobile, and Queens from all of those states and none are Springfield's state.
- Connecticut, Kansas, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, Oklahoma and Pennsylvania: The Kwik-E-Mart sells beer, and in "Simpson Safari", Bart attempts to buy wine in a supermarket, therefore Springfield can't be in Colorado, Connecticut, Kansas, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee or Utah, as none of these states allow the sale of wine in grocery stores.
- Idaho, Montana and Wyoming: On their way to Oregon in "We're on the Road to D'oh-where", Bart and Homer pass a sign that reads, "Mount Rushmore: Twenty Feet - Out Of Your Way". This would eliminate any state between Oregon and South Dakota.
- Washington, Oregon, California, Nevada, Idaho, Arizona, Alaska, and Hawaii: In "Little Big Girl", Bart and Darcy pass through Colorado on their way from Springfield to Utah, eliminating any state west of the Utah-Colorado border.
- Patty and Selma work at the Department of Motor Vehicles. The authority is known by alternate names in Arizona, Florida, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Texas, and Washington.
- In "E. Pluribus Wiggum", Springfield holds a presidential primary, eliminating Alaska, Colorado, Hawaii, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Minnesota, Nevada, North Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming, as those states hold caucuses instead of primaries. Though it should be noted that primaries are typically held by states and not individual cities, so Springfield holding its own primary is unusual.
- In "Much Apu About Nothing", there are also several clues as to where Springfield isn't:
- On Homer's weekly paycheck, it is shown that the state withholds income tax. This rules out Alaska, Florida, Nevada, New Hampshire, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, and Wyoming.
- Fat Tony tells Apu that his false identity was born in Green Bay, Wisconsin.
- When Homer is coaching Apu for his immigration test, Homer first points to Chicago, but Lisa corrects him by saying, "You're not pointing anywhere near Springfield" and points out the correct location. At this time, Bart walks in and blocks the view. Springfield is not in Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Montana or Wyoming. In another frame, Springfield is not in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, or the District of Columbia.
- In "Dancin' Homer", it is revealed that Capital City has a Major League Baseball team. This would eliminate Arkansas, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New York, South Carolina, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, and Wyoming, as their state capitals do not have major league baseball teams. However, in "Hungry, Hungry Homer", Homer uncovers a conspiracy to move the Springfield Isotopes to Albuquerque. But, in reality, there is a minor league team named the Isotopes in Albuquerque, implying that the show does not recognize real-life baseball affiliations.
- New York, Maryland, Georgia, Maine, Texas, Louisiana, North Dakota, Idaho, Massachusetts, and Nevada: In "Father Knows Worst", Noah's Mother that Homer sat with in the school cafeteria told her son, Noah, to recite state capitals alphabetically. He listed Albany, Annapolis, Atlanta, Augusta, Austin, Baton Rouge, Bismarck, Boise, Boston, Capital City and Carson City. All of these are the capitals of the listed states, except Capital City, which is the non-existent state capital of Springfield's state.
- In "Dogtown", after Quimby finds out about their current position on dogs, he says that Springfield will be known as the dog-loving capital of the world from that point forth, and that it will put Springfield on the map. His assistant asks why they are not on the map, but instead of revealing the answer, Quimby says that he doesn't know, because he made twenty calls to Rand McNally, and the company doesn't even understand what state Springfield is in as well.
All of these statistics preclude every state in America, indicating Springfield is either in a fictional state or that its state is an amalgamation of many U.S. states' cultures and identities.
- The Homer They Fall
- Lisa the Iconoclast
- Cape Fear
- 22 Short Films About Springfield
- Mother and Child Reunion
- Two Cars in Every Garage and Three Eyes on Every Fish
- Eternal Moonshine of the Simpson Mind
- Half-Decent Proposal
- Marge vs. the Monorail
- Coming to Homerica
- Poppa's Got a Brand New Badge
- The Simpsons Movie
- "The Girl on the Bus"
- The Town
- Coming to Homerica
- Marge in Chains
- The Princess Guide
- Midnight Rx
- The Musk Who Fell To Earth
- Bart vs. Australia
- The Color Yellow
- Trilogy of Error
- Mother and Child Reunion